Atlantic Storm http://atlantic-storm.org/ Wed, 22 Sep 2021 07:27:42 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://atlantic-storm.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-icon-32x32.png Atlantic Storm http://atlantic-storm.org/ 32 32 In Search of Antiferromagnetics | Mirage News https://atlantic-storm.org/in-search-of-antiferromagnetics-mirage-news/ https://atlantic-storm.org/in-search-of-antiferromagnetics-mirage-news/#respond Wed, 22 Sep 2021 06:11:08 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/in-search-of-antiferromagnetics-mirage-news/

Today, however, antiferromagnetics are prime candidates for faster, more energy-efficient data processing and storage. In this way, magnetic scattering in the soft X-ray region – a combination of spectroscopy and scattering experiment – provided direct insight into the magnetic order of antiferromagnetics and thus allowed important contributions to the study. field. However, until now such experiments could only be performed in large-scale scientific facilities, such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers, which provide sufficient light in the soft X-ray range. At the Max Born Institute, it is now possible for the first time to study an antiferromagnetic sample by magnetic scattering on a laboratory laser-controlled source. The work was published in the journal Optica and was also chosen for the cover image.

Magnetic materials are an integral part of our daily life, for example as a needle in a compass or as data storage on a hard drive. We usually think of ferro-magnets, where all the magnetic moments point in the same direction. A typical example is the home refrigerator magnet. Most magnetic materials, however, form a completely different order – namely antiferromagnetic – in which the magnetic moments periodically align, but for example in opposite directions, and therefore no clear magnetization can be detected. This is also the reason why this class of materials was not discovered until very late in the 1930s by the French Nobel laureate Louis Néel. For a long time, antiferromagnetics were regarded as rather academic systems for basic research without any potential for application. However, this view has changed dramatically, especially in recent decades, due to the discovery of new material systems and methods for characterization as well as control of magnetic order. In this context, antiferromagnetics overtake ferro-magnets with their significantly higher speed, stability and energy efficiency, for example in data processing and storage.

One of the most important methods for studying antiferromagnetics is resonant magnetic scattering. In this mixture of spectroscopy and scattering experiment, light with a very specific frequency (analogous to color in the visible domain) is needed to visualize magnetism. In addition, the wavelength of light, corresponding to the frequency, must be less than the antiferromagnetic periodicity in the sample studied. Both of these criteria are met in the so-called soft X-ray region for many antiferromagnetic systems, which in turn can provide direct information on the magnetic order on scales of a few nanometers in length. Unfortunately, the required light sources with the appropriate brightness have so far only been available in large-scale scientific facilities such as synchrotrons and free electron lasers, severely limiting the availability of this powerful experimental method.

Researchers from the Max Born Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich and Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin have for the first time succeeded in carrying out such a laboratory-scale experiment. To do this, they used and optimized an established technique for generating soft x-rays – a laser-driven plasma source. The thin disc laser used was developed specifically for this application and similar applications at the Max Born Institute. The extremely energetic and very short (2 ps = 0.000 000 002 s) flashes of light from the laser are focused on a tungsten metal cylinder. At the focus, conditions similar to those on the surface of the sun prevail during the short duration of the laser pulse and lead to the generation of a plasma. This form of matter, also known as the fourth aggregate state, itself emits light over a very wide spectral range, just like the sun. Since the plasma is driven by very short laser pulses, the generated flashes of light are also only slightly longer. With the help of special optics, reflection zone plate, it is possible to collect enough soft x-rays of this plasma emission and use them for magnetic scattering experiments.

To demonstrate their new concept, the researchers looked at an artificial antiferromagnetic. This was adapted by alternately growing several layers of pure iron and chromium each about one nanometer thick. The iron layers are pure ferromagnetics, but they align exactly antiparallel to each other by coupling through the chromium layers, see Fig. 1. In addition to a structural periodicity due to the alternating layers, this also results in a so-called antiferromagnetic superstructure, which contains exactly two layers of iron. Both periodicities can be resolved by resonant scattering, allowing direct insight into the structural and antiferromagnetic order in the sample system, see Fig. 2.

As mentioned above, the laser driven plasma source not only provides sufficient soft X-ray radiation for laboratory magnetic scattering experiments, but at the same time its flashes of light are also particularly short, i.e. only a few picoseconds. Accordingly, measurements as described above can also be performed in a strobe mode, allowing, for example, the study of light-induced dynamics over time scales of pulse duration. The corresponding time-resolved measurements of the artificial antiferromagnetic impressively demonstrate the advantages of this work over current and future synchrotron sources, which offer a 10-fold worse time resolution.

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Duterte renews his call to end the Kafala system https://atlantic-storm.org/duterte-renews-his-call-to-end-the-kafala-system/ https://atlantic-storm.org/duterte-renews-his-call-to-end-the-kafala-system/#respond Wed, 22 Sep 2021 05:22:00 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/duterte-renews-his-call-to-end-the-kafala-system/

President Rodrigo Duterte (Presidential photo)

MANILA – President Rodrigo Duterte on Wednesday denounced the persistence of the controversial Kafala program which monitors and restricts the movements of migrant workers.

In his recorded speech to the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly, Duterte renewed his call for the complete abrogation of the Kafala in the Middle East.

“The Kafala system is one of those behemoths that chains the weak, the hopeless and the voiceless to the existence of unimaginable suffering. Nothing can justify the continued existence of this unjust system, ”said Duterte.

Duterte said any project that paves the way for the “exploitation and oppression” of migrant workers must be dismantled.

Duterte made the appeal, as he acknowledged that millions of Filipinos are working abroad “under the most difficult and inhumane circumstances”.

“The Philippines is seeking stronger partnerships to protect the rights of Filipinos and realize the full potential of our nation,” he said. “While reforms have been made, the Kafala system must be dismantled – as soon as possible – in the name of basic justice and decency.”

In April this year, Duterte called for the “complete” abolition of the “unjust” and “exploitative” Kafala system in order to end the inequalities and suffering of migrant workers.

Duterte, in his sixth and final State of the Nation address on July 26, threatened to order the repatriation of Filipino workers abroad from Arab countries, if the controversial Kafala project is not dismantled.

Kafala comes from the Arabic word which means “sponsorship”.

The Kafala system is a mechanism in the Gulf countries used to monitor migrant workers, usually unskilled workers through a sponsor, including household service workers, construction workers and workers in the sector. services.

Under the program, the sponsor is usually the employer who is responsible for the immigration status and visa of the migrant worker. The worker cannot leave without the consent of his employer, which makes him vulnerable to abuse.

On April 23, Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Robert Borje said Duterte was working “quietly” with Middle Eastern heads of state to end the Kafala system. (ANP)

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Rabbet, AvidXchange team on invoice management https://atlantic-storm.org/rabbet-avidxchange-team-on-invoice-management/ https://atlantic-storm.org/rabbet-avidxchange-team-on-invoice-management/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 19:48:49 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/rabbet-avidxchange-team-on-invoice-management/

Real estate development management software platform Rabbet announced on Tuesday, September 21, its partnership with the accounts payable (AP) and payment automation solution AvidXchange on a program to improve invoice management for real estate developers.

Through the coupling, Rabbet’s technology will communicate with AvidInvoice, AvidXchange’s electronic invoicing solution, to reduce duplication of invoice data so that it can be paid faster and with fewer errors.

“This partnership not only strengthens our position in the real estate industry, but will also provide a better experience for Rabbet clients,” said Joe Fox, product director of AvidXchange, in the joint announcement. “By working together, we hope clients will see a significant impact on the collaboration between their development teams and their accounting teams, and on the transformation of their day-to-day invoicing processes. “

AvidXchange will help Rabbet clients improve collaboration between accounting teams and maximize efficiency. Commercial real estate company Stream Realty Partners, a client of both Rabbet and AvidXchange, is already seeing the benefits of this partnership.

“Now, thanks to the partnership between Rabbet and AvidXchange, our accounting team and our development team can trust their information and execute their respective processes with ease,” said Albert Jarrell, partner and general manager of construction management for Stream Realty Partners, in the joint announcement. “By using both AvidXchange and Rabbet, invoice management has become much more efficient. “

Rabbet CEO Will Mitchell is excited about the twinning with AvidXchange. “Our latest report on construction payments showed that slow payments cost the industry more than $ 100 billion last year,” he said in the joint announcement. “By partnering with AvidXchange, we are taking an exciting step towards our goal of streamlining payments in construction finance, allowing real estate development companies to save time, reduce errors and build stronger relationships with all stakeholders of the project. “

Related news: RealPage Intros Identity Fraud Prevention Tool for the Real Estate Industry

Meanwhile, RealPage recently launched Identity Verification, which it says is the first comprehensive tool to prevent multi-point-of-touch fraud throughout the rental and payment process in real estate. The tool will save property management operators more than $ 30 per unit each year, according to RealPage officials.

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NEW PYMNTS DATA: TODAY’S SELF-SERVICE PURCHASE JOURNEY – SEPTEMBER 2021

On: Eighty percent of consumers want to use non-traditional payment options like self-service, but only 35 percent were able to use them for their most recent purchases. Today’s Self-Service Shopping Journey, a PYMNTS and Toshiba Collaboration, analyzes more than 2,500 responses to find out how merchants can address availability and perception issues to meet demand for self-service kiosks.

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Further advice from the court on the applicability of damages | King and Spalding https://atlantic-storm.org/further-advice-from-the-court-on-the-applicability-of-damages-king-and-spalding/ https://atlantic-storm.org/further-advice-from-the-court-on-the-applicability-of-damages-king-and-spalding/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 18:04:04 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/further-advice-from-the-court-on-the-applicability-of-damages-king-and-spalding/

Shortly after the long-awaited Supreme Court ruling on how termination damages works, the English courts delivered another important judgment on how damages work, this time in a takeover case. or early possession of the work by the employer.

Early take-over or possession provisions are common in construction contracts, providing flexibility to employers by allowing early use of a portion of completed work. However, the interplay between repossession clauses and damages (“DL”) clauses is often overlooked when drafting construction contracts, resulting in disputes over what happens to the agreed rate of LDs. when part of the work is taken care of in advance and is therefore deemed to be completed. Do GLs become a penalty, which is null and unenforceable? If they become a penalty, does the limit on the maximum level of LD payable also drop, exposing the entrepreneur to much higher, if not potentially unlimited, liability in the event of delay?

The position of English law on these questions has been examined in detail by the Technology and Construction Court in Eco World – Ballymore Embassy Gardens Company Limited (“EWB”) v Dobler UK Limited (“Dobler”) [2021] EWHC 2207 (TCC). In its decision, the Technology and Construction Court held that there was no general principle in English law that the LD provisions automatically became inapplicable when part of the work is taken over by the employer and there is no There is no corresponding reduction in the level of payable LDs. The applicability of the LD provisions depends on the correct interpretation of the terms of each contract; and in the case of the contract between EWB and Dobler, the LD provisions were not a sanction and were enforceable even after an early takeover.

While the court stressed that its ruling was based on the particular wording of the contract between ISF and Dobler, it nonetheless serves as a broader reminder that English courts will not easily find LD provisions null and unenforceable. It also highlights the will of the English courts to give effect to the parties’ bargain and not to hinder their freedom to agree on commercial terms.

Background

The underlying litigation concerned the delay in the design, supply and installation of facade and glazing work on an apartment building in London.

Under the contract (which was based on the JCT 2011 Construction Management Trade Contract form) and a subsequent amendment act, Dobler was required to complete substantially all of the work by April 30, 2018. If not not, he would be liable for LD of £ zero per week for the first 4 weeks of delay, then £ 25,000 for each additional week of delay, up to a maximum of 7% of the final contract price. The contract also enabled ISF to take over part of the works before their practical completion.

The works were delayed and on June 15, 2018, ISF took over the apartment blocks that had been completed, in order to mitigate its losses. The practical completion of all the works was finally completed on December 20, 2018.

After completion of the work, the parties went through three adjudications for amounts owed to or from Dobler, including Dobler’s liability for LDs. During the auctions, it became evident that ISF might be able to recover much higher damages for delay if the LD provisions of the contract (including the upper limit of these LDs) were unenforceable. ISF therefore initiated proceedings before the Technology and Construction Tribunal, arguing that:

  1. LD provisions are null and / or inapplicable, because the contract did not provide for a reduction in LD following the partial resumption of work by ISF and LD therefore became a penalty; and
  2. ISF is entitled to general damages for delay and these damages are not limited to a maximum of 7% of the final contract price, as the ceiling only applies to contractual LDs.

The court’s decision

Are the LDs null and void when the employer takes over part of the work?

The court said there was no “Inflexible rule of law” in English law that the LD provisions will never be applicable when part of the work is taken over by the employer without a corresponding reduction in the LD to be paid. The validity of LD provisions after partial possession or repossession by the employer depends on the precise wording of the contract.

The court ruled that the LD provisions of the contract between ISF and Dobler were clear, certain and applicable even after the partial takeover by ISF, and were not extravagant, exorbitant or unreasonable to the point of making them null or unenforceable, for the following reasons:

  1. The LD provisions were negotiated by the parties with the assistance of outside counsel.
  2. ISF had a legitimate interest in enforcing Dobler’s obligation to complete all work on time, as the delay would likely affect fit-up and finishing work by other contractors, ISF would expose to the liability of the LDs towards the local authority acquiring some of the apartments and would result in loss of buyers for the other apartments.
  3. Quantifying the damage suffered by ISF would have been difficult, a difficulty which was avoided by the parties by fixing the rate of LD in the contract.
  4. The level of LD agreed in the contract was neither unreasonable nor disproportionate to the probable losses suffered by ISF due to the late completion of blocks which were not taken care of in advance.

In his judgment, O’Farrell J also said that although the terms of the contract gave ISF the discretion to collect LDs at a rate of less than £ 25,000 per week, there was no need to imply a condition. that ISF should exercise this discretion. “In a rational or reasonable manner”. EWB had an express absolute contractual right to receive LDs at the rate of £ 25,000 per week and was entitled to exercise that right as it saw fit.

Does the DL limit apply to general damages for delay?

The court recognized that it did not need to consider whether general damages would be capped at 7% of the final contract price, since it held that damages (rather than general damages ) were due. However, O’Farrell J still decided to offer some perspectives on this frequently contested issue.

Once again, the court emphasized that, in accordance with general principles of interpretation of English law, each clause fixing the maximum level of LD payable should be interpreted as such. Whether such a limit would also apply to general damages for delay would depend on the correct interpretation of each particular contract.

In this case, the court ruled that the cap would apply to general damages if the provisions of the CA were void or inapplicable because it was a penalty. Indeed, based on an objective understanding of the parties’ trade agreement, the LD provisions of the contract between ISF and Dobler served two purposes: to quantify automatic liability for damages in the event of delay and to limit Dobler’s overall liability. in case of delay. If the first part of the LD provisions were null or inapplicable, the second part containing an express limitation of liability to 7% of the contract price would remain valid and would continue to apply.

Discussion and key takeaways

There is no doubt that the judgment of Eco World – Ballymore Embassy Gardens Company Limited v Dobler UK Limited is important because it addresses two issues over which the English courts have limited authority despite the fact that they arise quite frequently in litigation. Although the court stressed that its ruling was based on the particular wording of the contract between ISF and Dobler, it is likely that it will have a broader impact and influence on employers and contractors.

It serves as a useful reminder of the attitude of the courts towards LD provisions, confirming that it is difficult to argue in English law that LDs are a penalty and therefore void and unenforceable. It also highlights the willingness of the courts to give effect to the parties’ agreement and not to hinder their freedom to agree on commercial terms and to spread the risks in their commercial transactions, especially when the terms have been negotiated and agreed with. the assistance of external lawyers.

In addition, and together with the previous Supreme Court ruling in Triple point, the decision recognizes the importance of certainty when addressing the risk and consequences of project delay. By applying the LD provisions, the courts provide an employer with certainty of how much he will recover (without having to spend time and money proving his losses) and the entrepreneur with certainty of his exposure to harm. damages in the event of project delay.

In addition, the judgment serves as an important reminder that the parties must, at all times, draft their contract in a way that clearly corresponds to their intentions. In the context of a project delay, it makes sense to pay particular attention to the level of LDs, the limits of their recovery, the requirement or preference for partial completion, the need for possession or early assumption of responsibility and the impact of this assumption of the obligations of the contractor and the applicability of the LD provisions.

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Haiti Del Rio crisis and lack of power in Afghanistan raise security concerns https://atlantic-storm.org/haiti-del-rio-crisis-and-lack-of-power-in-afghanistan-raise-security-concerns/ https://atlantic-storm.org/haiti-del-rio-crisis-and-lack-of-power-in-afghanistan-raise-security-concerns/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 16:57:37 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/haiti-del-rio-crisis-and-lack-of-power-in-afghanistan-raise-security-concerns/

As the United States faces a growing threat posed by domestic extremists, national security officials on Tuesday expressed deep concern over the potential re-establishment of Al Qaeda and an ISIS-K more terrorist group. powerful to launch attacks from Afghanistan after the chaotic exit of US military forces.

Director of the National Counterterrorism Center, Christine Abizaid, told a Senate panel that evolving threats from Afghanistan are the centre’s “top priority” as terrorist groups attempt to fill the gap. the emptiness of the American withdrawal.

Abizaid joined FBI Director Christopher Wray and Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas before the Senate Homeland Security Committee where they were closely questioned about the potential risk posed by Taliban-ruled Afghanistan.

Following:The Biden and Trump administrations did not miss the ISIS-K threat – they ignored it, experts say

Following:Biden Defends US Exit, Says He Could Not Extend ‘Eternal War’

“We are concerned about what the future holds,” Wray told lawmakers.

At the same time, Wray said the FBI has been tracking a steady increase in domestic terrorism investigations since 2020, when those investigations have increased from around 1,000 to 2,700 currently. The numbers are driven largely by extremists motivated by racial, ethnic, political and anti-government grievances.

But Wray feared that other local actors were increasingly radicalized by foreign terrorists, including those who settle in Afghanistan.

“It’s intimidating,” said Senator Mitt Romney, R-Utah.

Mayorkas under fire from influx of Haitian migrants in Del Rio

Hearing became difficult at times, as Republican members also hammered Mayorkas over the influx of Haitian migrants to the Texas border.

Mayorkas called the gathering of migrants under the international bridge a “human tragedy” which was “extraordinarily difficult to see”.

The secretary said authorities had reduced the number from 15,000 to just under 10,000 by increasing repatriation flights to Haiti and moving others to treatment centers at other locations on the border, describing the wave as “unprecedented”, in number and concentration at a border post.

Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas in Washington, DC on September 9, 2021.

Republican lawmakers, however, demanded that the administration take responsibility for the “human crisis”.

“Do you bear responsibility for the crisis in Del Rio?” Senator Josh Hawley repeatedly asked the secretary. “Yes or no?

“It is my responsibility to deal with the human tragedy in Del Rio,” Mayorkas replied, adding that the migrants had received “false information” from the traffickers about a new administration sympathetic to migrants.

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Chinese Label Printer Achieves 21% Improved Average TRS with AWP ™ CleanPrint Flexo Plates https://atlantic-storm.org/chinese-label-printer-achieves-21-improved-average-trs-with-awp-cleanprint-flexo-plates/ https://atlantic-storm.org/chinese-label-printer-achieves-21-improved-average-trs-with-awp-cleanprint-flexo-plates/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 10:00:31 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/chinese-label-printer-achieves-21-improved-average-trs-with-awp-cleanprint-flexo-plates/

Tested 8 jobs, comparing AWP to their existing plate, with up to 46% OEE improvement on some jobs

Tokyo, Japan and Brussels, Belgium – Asahi Photoproducts, a pioneer in the development of flexographic photopolymer plates, today announced that a leading Chinese label printer has switched to Asahi CleanPrint AWPTM flexographic plates from their standard thermal plates after a thorough comparison of the two plates performing live work with UV ink. The company reported improvements in OEE of up to 46% for some jobs, with an average improvement of 21%. Jobs ranged from typical four-color label printing to more complex seven-color jobs with screen printing and film. In an extreme case, with a four-color job, the press running competing plates stopped for cleaning the plates 24 times at about three minutes per event, while the press running the Asahi plates only required cleaning. plates only once, due to the characteristics of Asahi’s CleanPrint. plates.

In the flexo industry, Overall Equipment Efficiency, or TRS, is a measure of the performance of a printing press. It is a calculation – OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality – which provides a percentage of OEE. It’s an evidence-based way to measure the effectiveness of your operation and identify ways to continually improve it over time.

“We found the results of these tests quite interesting,” said Ryo Ichihashi, general manager of Asahi Kasei Electronics Materials Technical Center (Suzhou). “And in line with our overall industry experience. In the case of this label printer, the quality delivered by both plates was about the same, but uptime and performance were significantly improved with Asahi CleanPrint AWPTM plates. This means that the company will now be able to produce on average 21% more work in its workshop with equivalent quality, which translates into a significant increase in profits.

Asahi Photoproducts CleanPrint Flexographic Plates have been specially developed by our chemical engineers to transfer the remaining ink to the printed substrate, reducing press downtime for plate cleaning while delivering exceptional consistent quality throughout the run. This translates into higher quality, less waste and improved TRS, as the benchmarking study of this Chinese label printer clearly demonstrates.

For more information, please watch our video, download the OEE brochure and / or view the OEE calculator and find out how you can improve your flexo operational excellence!

For more information on other flexographic solutions from Asahi Photoproducts that are environmentally friendly, visit www.asahi-photoproducts.com.

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Friday Adakole Elijah: TVA saga – The battle for federalism https://atlantic-storm.org/friday-adakole-elijah-tva-saga-the-battle-for-federalism/ https://atlantic-storm.org/friday-adakole-elijah-tva-saga-the-battle-for-federalism/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 06:47:56 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/friday-adakole-elijah-tva-saga-the-battle-for-federalism/

The battle raging between River State Governor Nyesom Wike and the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) today is a manifestation of a well-planted time bomb awaiting explosion as a prelude to the setting implementing what some scholars have described as “true federalism”. Nigeria is currently exploiting the corrupt version of federalism. The Nigerian brand of federalism is antithetical to the true concept of federalism commonly known as the “Frederickan Model of Federalism”.

Federalism as described by Wikipedia is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines general government (the central or “federal” government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in one political system. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which powers are distributed between two levels of government of equal status.

Examples of a federation or federal state include the United States, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, Germany, Canada, Switzerland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belgium, l ‘Argentina, Nigeria, Pakistan and Australia. Some describe the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state framework, in a concept called the federal union of states.

In our journey to nationhood, Nigeria as a country has experienced different types of political systems and constitutions as well as economic philosophies. Currently, we are practicing what could be described as the inverted pyramid or the icteric form of federalism which is a complete negation of the principle of true federalism.

Indeed, the 1979 constitution that we borrowed from the United States of America (United States) consolidated Ironsi Decree number 34 of May 24, 1966. Under these laws, virtually all articles were listed in chapters. exclusive. And that was the start of the quagmires that we met today. Federalism in the country has been implemented backwards.

Until before this period, Nigeria prospered under the system of regionalism. Regions deliberately developed their economies through taxes, agriculture, etc. That’s why we heard about the famous peanut pyramid in Kano, rice, millets, sorghum, yam. There was also the rise of cocoas, rubber plantations, cola nuts in the west, palms and palm oil in the east.

Regional governments could generate revenue for its sustainability and then had diplomatic relations with foreign nations. The North had strong relations with Sudan. Ditto, the West had diplomatic relations with the State of Israel. It is this relationship that led to the creation of the University of Ife. The East had its fantastic relationship with Tanzania. There was healthy competition between the state. They also cooperated and collaborated with themselves. They put their fate completely in their hands because there was no such thing as “the misery of the state”.

But because Nigeria as a country through the instrument of the military has opted for centralized federalism, people today are calling for fiscal federalism with the hope that it has the capacity to trigger development.

According to Olabanji Olukayode Ewetan (2012), fiscal decentralization has become fashionable regardless of the levels of development and civilization of societies. Nations are turning to decentralization to improve the performance of their public sectors. Fiscal federalism is essentially about the allocation of government resources and spending to the various levels of government.

In general, the researcher cited Aigbokhan, 1999; Oates, 1972; Tanzi, 1995 and Chete, 1998 argue that the intensification of the demand for greater decentralization is influenced by a combination of people eager to become more involved in government and the inability of the central government to provide quality services. .

He further explained that decentralized systems of government give rise to a set of fiscal requirements called fiscal federalism also known as fiscal decentralization. According to the researcher, this refers to the scope and structure of levels of government responsibilities and functions, and the distribution of resources among levels of government to cope with the respective functions.

In Nigeria, the scholar estimated that the poor performance of the public sector since the first half of the 1980s has brought to the fore the issue of fiscal federalism which has remained dominant and most controversial in the Nigerian regime (Arowolo 2011).

Federalism according to Arowole, Akindele and Olaopa cited by Ewetan (2012), is a political concept in which the power to govern is shared between national, state and local governments, creating what is often called a federation (Arowolo, 2011, Akindele and Olaopa, 2002). Arowolo (2011) further postulated that “It is a political theory that is divergent in concept, varied in ecology and dynamic in practice”. For his part, Vincent (2001) explained that the concept of federalism implies that each level of government is coordinated and independent within its delimited sphere of authority and should also have appropriate taxing powers to exploit its independent sources of revenue.

According to Vincent, fiscal federalism therefore requires that each level of government have adequate resources to perform its functions without calling on the other level of government for financial assistance (Wheare, 1963).

Fiscal federalism, according to the researcher, is characterized by fiscal relationships between central and lower levels of government. The fiscal relations between and among the constituents of the federation are explained in terms of three main theories, namely, the theory of the fiscal relation which concerns the expected functions of each level of government in the tax allocation; the theory of inter-jurisdictional cooperation which refers to areas of responsibility shared by national, state and local governments; and the theory of the multi-jurisdictional community (Tella, 1999).
Each level of government is seen as seeking to maximize the social welfare of citizens under its jurisdiction.

From the above discussions, the role assignment that follows from the basic theory of fiscal federalism is summarized as follows: The central government is expected to ensure a fair distribution of income, maintain macroeconomic stability and provide public goods of national character. On the other hand, decentralized levels of government should focus on providing local public goods, with central government providing targeted grants in cases where there are jurisdictional spillovers associated with local public goods. Once the roles have been assigned, the next step in the theoretical framework is to determine the appropriate tax framework. In addressing this tax allocation problem, attention is drawn to the need to avoid distortions resulting from decentralized taxation of mobile tax bases.

Vincent cited Gordon (1983) in pointing out that the extensive application of non-benefit taxes on moving factors at decentralized levels of government could lead to distortions in the location of economic activity.

It is this dislocation as outlined above that the governments of Rivers and Lagos states are seeking to remedy with the current VAT hubbub. If implemented, it is capable of pulling states and the country in general out of the clutches of “bottle federalism”. It will also give state governors more responsibility for managing scarce resources. This means that the state must start to think outside the box for revenue strategies. And when that is done, Nigeria would undoubtedly have anchored the American model of federalism in its climate. It is not appropriate that all states eagerly await Abuja for financial assistance. They should develop their livelihoods.

Nothing prevents, for example, Benue State from developing its oil well in Okwiji, in the local government area of ​​Apa or an avalanche of solid minerals available in many places in the state in order to improve and consolidate its revenue base.

It was obviously in preparation for a day like this that Kogi State worked hard and ensured that oil was discovered in the state. Lucky for them, Kogi has been listed as one of the country’s oil-producing states. And they will begin to enjoy the fruits of their labor when the real exploitation begins.

Zamfara State is currently mining its gold and has even said it will pay royalties to the federal government against the spirit of the FRN constitution.

Wike’s posture, without a doubt, is in tandem with the expectations of Nigerians about true federalism or fiscal federalism. States should not continue to depend on the center for funding.

Dr Elijah writes from Otada – Otukpo.

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Why companies choose different structures https://atlantic-storm.org/why-companies-choose-different-structures/ https://atlantic-storm.org/why-companies-choose-different-structures/#respond Mon, 20 Sep 2021 21:36:42 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/why-companies-choose-different-structures/
(Photo: Feodora / stock.adobe.com)

You are not selling in a flea market environment. Neither does your client. If you did, you and the business would be considered the same entity. If you sold someone a used cappuccino maker and it exploded, they would personally sue you in court. For this reason, business people take deliberate steps to separate their personal finances from their business activities as a means of personal protection. What structures do they use?

First, you need to understand that the government has a vested interest in being your sponsor. You take the risks and they take a share of the profits generated by your business. They give you plenty of opportunities to recycle money to grow the business, but they expect their share of your profits. It keeps the accountants in business. All businesses need good accountants.

The company structure is the most obvious form of organization. Almost all of the large listed companies that you can name are organized this way. A major problem with this structure is the concept of double taxation. Suppose the business earns money after paying its expenses. This profit is taxed by the government. The tax rate is 21% (1) But the money is still held within the company. It leaves the company and passes into the hands of the shareholder through the payment of dividends. These are taxed as income on the individual’s tax return. This is what is meant by double taxation. The structure of the company, although complex and expensive, can allow the company to provide various benefits to its employees.

The most important benefit of this corporate structure (and others) is the corporate veil or personal liability protection.

The limit partnership structure is a way for a few people to do business together. Often there is a general partner and limited liability partners. From the headlines you can see that one has unlimited liability and the others do not. a more familiar term is limited liability company Where LLP structure. In this case, all partners have the same level of personal protection.

You heard the expression Limited liability company Where SARL before. Its structure is similar to that of the LLP above. One of the main advantages of this structure is to avoid double taxation. The profits of the business are distributed directly to the partners or owners, who are then taxed at their level of income tax.

You have also heard of Body S, which offer some of the advantages of the corporate structure along with the advantages of the partnership structure. The profits of the business (losses too) are transferred directly to the owner, who pays taxes at his individual rate.

The last structure we will look at is the Individual business. This is where you are the business and vice versa. There is no corporate veil between your professional life and your personal life. In this situation, the profits are taxed as personal income.

The advantage of the corporate veil

No one wants to be held personally responsible if it can be avoided. For this reason, companies are often configured as an arm’s length relationship. If the business fails, under ideal circumstances, you don’t want to be held responsible for its debts. In reality, a bank lending to a new business will want your personal collateral before putting their money at risk. Butr for big problems, the structure offers protection.

But you have to walk the promenade and speak the conversation. The out-of-pocket flea market vendor cannot claim that this was a separate company that sold the exploding cappuccino maker.

  1. Incorporation. The company must be formally established, structured and registered with the State.
  2. Deposits. The business must file income tax returns and other documents separately from your personal returns.
  3. Bank accounts. The business needs separate accounts from your personal accounts.
  4. Credit line. It is difficult to lend the business your own money whenever it is needed. You want the business to have the ability to borrow when needed for short periods.
  5. Credit card. You will have expenses related to the business. These should also be at arm’s length.
  6. Expenses. There will be times when you will be spending personal money on business expenses. One example is the use of your own car to get to the airport. You must document reimbursable expenses.
  7. Telephone. If your business is made up of two separate entities, you also need a phone number for the business entity.

It is important to understand these structures if you are starting your own business. It’s important to understand why your small business clients choose the structures they choose. Either way, if you want to be in business, you need a good accountant.

Bryce sanders is President of Perceptive Business Solutions Inc. He provides training on HNW client acquisition for the financial services industry. His book “Captivating the Wealthy Investor” is available on Amazon.

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China pledges to continue supporting Afghanistan “unconditionally”; offers $ 15 million in funds https://atlantic-storm.org/china-pledges-to-continue-supporting-afghanistan-unconditionally-offers-15-million-in-funds/ https://atlantic-storm.org/china-pledges-to-continue-supporting-afghanistan-unconditionally-offers-15-million-in-funds/#respond Mon, 20 Sep 2021 17:05:00 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/china-pledges-to-continue-supporting-afghanistan-unconditionally-offers-15-million-in-funds/

Chinese Ambassador to Kabul Wang Yu met with the Taliban’s Acting Refugee and Repatriation Minister and Foreign Minister Amir Khan Muttaqi, and vowed to continue to help and cooperate with Afghanistan without any condition. According to Tolo News, China has offered $ 15 million in humanitarian aid as well as three million doses of COVID vaccines to Afghanistan.

The Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation said aid would reach the war-torn country within months. This follows the United States’ announcement of nearly $ 64 million in additional humanitarian assistance for the people of Afghanistan. On Monday, September 13, US Secretary of State Antony Blinken said US aid to Afghanistan would bypass the Taliban and go directly to non-governmental organizations and UN agencies providing aid to underprivileged Afghans, reported the ‘ANI.

China, which is closely monitoring events in Afghanistan, wants to use the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) to strengthen its influence in Pakistan and Central and South Asia, to counter US domination. Meanwhile, China also has a vested interest in Afghanistan because its Belt and Road Development (BRI) projects pass through the country, ANI reported.

Earlier this month, official Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid said China is their main partner and that the assistance provided by the country will lay the foundation for Afghan development, according to The Guardian, citing the newspaper. Italian La Repubblica.

Mujahid also asserted that the Chinese government is ready to invest and rebuild Afghanistan, which presents a “fundamental and remarkable opportunity” for the Taliban. He also added that the Taliban are determined to rebuild the old Silk Road and that the One Belt, One Road initiative is of great importance to them.

Afghan Rights Commission accuses Taliban of labor interference

Meanwhile, on Sunday, September 19, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) accused the Taliban of seizing its premises in an attempt to obstruct its operations.

“The AIHRC has been in power for some time but has not been able to fulfill its obligations to the Afghan people. The Taliban have taken over all AIHRC offices, scheduling meetings and using vehicles and AIHRC computers, ”the AIHRC said in a statement. by ANI.

The Taliban have systematically violated human rights, including attacks on human rights activists and gross violations of international human rights standards, according to the report. The AIHRC also called on the Taliban to respect the independence of the commission as well as Afghan human rights defenders who have fought tirelessly to protect the rights of Afghans.

(With ANI inputs)

Image: ANI / Twitter / @Wang Yu

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A look at options for structuring small businesses: South Florida Caribbean News https://atlantic-storm.org/a-look-at-options-for-structuring-small-businesses-south-florida-caribbean-news/ https://atlantic-storm.org/a-look-at-options-for-structuring-small-businesses-south-florida-caribbean-news/#respond Mon, 20 Sep 2021 16:17:48 +0000 https://atlantic-storm.org/a-look-at-options-for-structuring-small-businesses-south-florida-caribbean-news/

There are many reasons to start a business. They include personal independence and growth, the ability to choose more flexible work hours and locations, and more options for engaging in what you love. Whatever your reasons and goals, it is essential to understand the different types of businesses before starting one. This article will review some of the common forms of small business structure and the factors that go into choosing a form of business organization for your startup.

Individual business

Sole proprietorship is the simplest form of doing business – any natural person with the right to do so can assume this status without any formalities. The business owner is personally responsible for all debts incurred, whether related to the business or not.

Advantages: It offers unlimited liability to its owners. No formalities are required to start a business in this category, making it easy and convenient for small businesses. Sole proprietorships do not need to file annual reports or hold annual meetings of shareholders since there is only one member. It also simplifies record keeping and reduces expenses.

Sole proprietorships are also easy to dissolve. If the business fails, the owners could simply stop the business and go out of business; they do not need to formally liquidate their assets or cease operations.

Cons: Individual business owners are personally liable for all debts owed by their businesses. Plus, profits flow directly into tax returns, which means sole proprietorships are not ideal for tax planning.

This form of business structure does not allow for expansion outside the personal capabilities of the owner, and since there is no distinction between individual and business ownership, it can be very difficult to lift. outside capital or to sell assets in an emergency.

Limited Liability Company (LLC)

A limited liability company, or LLC, is a good option for any small business owner who wants some level of financial protection without having to spend time learning complicated legal procedures. People at Sleek Tech Pte Ltd recommend employing a specialized firm to assist with incorporation. Most importantly, LLCs protect their owners from personal liability for debts incurred by the business, while allowing one or more of its members to serve as managers.

Benefits: LLCs offer limited liability protection which makes them a great choice for small businesses with little capital. This form of organization also involves fewer formalities related to its creation and operation. It is relatively easy to set up an LLC.

Cons: The biggest limitation of an LLC is that unless you decide otherwise, this type of business has no difference between the owner’s personal property and their business assets. This means that it can be difficult to raise outside capital or sell excess assets during a crisis.

Benefit sharing scheme / Partnership

This type of business structure provides many of the benefits of a corporation without the paperwork and accounting requirements that come with it. In this arrangement, both partners register but do not need to file additional documents at the federal level. This type of business is also easy and inexpensive to start.

Pros: This option gives small business owners full control over the assets and finances of their business and few limitations when it comes to tax planning, as the profits can be easily channeled to the accounts of different businesses for better purposes. management.

Cons: Profit sharing plans do not protect against personal liability and do not protect owners from legal actions brought against the company. This type of business also does not protect its owners against debts incurred while their other businesses are still in operation.

Limited Liability Company (LLP)

This form of small business ownership provides all the benefits of a limited liability company while protecting its members from personal liability should something go wrong. Like LLCs, it has no formalities required to register or operate, making it an attractive option for anyone who wants legal protection without much hassle.

Pros: An LLP is almost identical to an LLC in terms of structure and limitations, with one major exception: each partner enjoys a certain level of personal liability protection since they can claim the debts of the company on their own. taxes. Small business owners looking to sell company surplus assets will also find the LLP slightly more advantageous since profits can be transferred freely between members, whereas in LLCs this could be subject to tax.

Cons: An LLP only offers liability protection to registered members and not to the company itself, which means that any debt incurred by the company could personally affect all partners. Each partner is required to pay taxes for their share of the profits and losses. Selling surplus assets can therefore become a confusing process.

6 easy ways to take your business to the next level

Considering the limited time and resources of many small business owners, there is not much room for error. The best way to ensure that your business is healthy in all areas is to choose a structure that both offers protection against individual liability while ensuring that you are not faced with costs or costs. to unforeseen obstacles when it comes time to sell surplus assets if an emergency arises.

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